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INTRODUCTION THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE The Japanese Language is the mother-tongue of about 50,000,000 persons.

In Japan proper, excluding the recent accessions to the Empire, such as Taiwan (Formosa), the native population is linguistically homogeneous, with the ex- ception of a few remnants of the aborigines. a Shi-kata and shi-yo are similarly formed from the stem of the verb suru to do.

The pedagogical principle has been applied, for example, in the study of words. I IVa and ga 3 Subordinate subjects q No / Ni 9 Wo ... nakodo a go-between (in marriage), from naka middle and kito.

When it seems likely to aid the memory of the student to indicate the origin of a word, this is done ; but when the etymology is disputed or apt to be confusing, nothing is said about it and the student must learn the word as a whole. ii No substituted for ga 13 Compounds, VIII , IX 15 Derivatives 21 PREDICATE ADJECTIVES 24 THE PRONOUN Personal 27 Honorifics 31 Demonstratives *.. 36 " Same "," such " 38 Interrogatives 42 Indefinites 45 "Every", "other" 49 Translation of relatives 53 " Self V' one another" 57 THE NUMERAL Native forms and combinations, XXL, XXII 61 Chinese forms and units 67 Dates ...

My own experience as a missionary student of the lan- guage having proved the value of this work I prepared an English edition which was printed at Sendai, 1901-1903. Lange sent me copious notes -of corrections and additions gathered during his ten years' ex- perience as a teacher. Berrin ni wa a From met name, fame, and bntsu=tnono (same as rnotsu in kokumotsii}. c This verb is properly intransitive and impersonal. e Words like this, corresponding to our prepositions, follow their nouns and should be called postpositions. Ka may be omitted when interrogative pronouns or adverbs are used. e In Tokyo (ni wa) there are few horse-cars (horse-cars are few). This house is well built (manner of building is good). Does this photograph resemble me (watakus Jii ni) ? b Hi wo tsuketa mono the person who started the tire.

Justice to him requires me to state that I used the material thus graciously placed at my disposal with .a very free hand, for several reasons. Lange had prepared his book with the needs of a German student in view, and while the needs of an English-speaking student are in the main the same, there are many cases in which an explanation intended for the one will not help the other. Lange's notes were in many instances mere suggestions, very fruitful indeed, but not fully developed. Kono kisha wa doko ye ikimas* ka Hei^ Takasaki * ye ikimas\ Berrin ni wa tetsudobasha ga oi. The word is applied to a product which is characteristic of a given locality and so comes to be associated with its name. Kono may be called the pronominal adjective of the first person, sono, of the second, and ano, of the third. h Hei or hat is a mere interjection meaning that the speaker is attentive to the words which have been addressed to him. Arimasen keredomo, aomonoichi wa arimas\ Tokyo ni wa kivaji ga oi. Kwaji wa Edo no hana& Is there a drug store (go) in this vicinity ? The conflagration (of) last night was trifling (chiisakattd], but the earthquake was severe (okikatta)* In Japan there are still few railroads. Verbs, like adjec- tives, modify nouns, there being no relative pronoun in Japanese. d A proverb, suggested by the frequency of conflagrations in Edo (old name of Tokyo).

In regard to syntax also the Japanese is very much like some of the languages that belong to the Altaic group, e. SINICO-JAPANESE With Chinese the Japanese language proper has no relation whatever. x INTRODUCTION polysyllabic, the syllables being uniformly composed of a vowet or of a simple consonant followed by a vowel. Yet Chinese is of great importance in the study of Japanese, even of greater importance than Latin is in the study of English. of the two prefixes may form one with the other also. This distinction, of course, does not apply where the verb is intransitive or where tlie noun is the principal com- ponent and the verb has the nature of a modifier.

In the former, words are properly monosyllabic and frequently end in consonants ; in the latter they are mostly a See Transactions of the Asiatic Society Japan, Vol. Through the study of Chinese literature and the Buddhistic scriptures (which came to Japan in the form of Chinese translations), the importation of the Chinese arts and sciences, and the adoption of the ideographic script, it has come to pass that a great mass of Chinese words and expres- sions has found entrance into the Japanese language, in nu- merous cases even supplanting the native terms. a Boys in former times had the hair closely cropped or shaved, like pries! hi-tsuke incendiary, from hi fire and tsuke-ru apply ; but tsuke-bi incendiary fire.

But in one respect this work may claim to be scienti- fic : it has been the constant aim of Dr. SECOND CLASS R group 179 Verbs in eru and im 185 Honorific verbs in ru 189 T group 194 6" group 199 Masu, Mosu 205 Sum 211 K group 221 Oku, itadaku 226 Kuru ' 230 G group 235 ^and^Vgroup 239 Vowel group 244 Morau, Shimau 250 Causatives 254 Passives 259 Potentials 266 Idiomatic uses of the indicative 272 Uses of the stem 277 Compounds, LXVI. THE ADVERB Derived from ordinary adjectives 3 J 4 vi ii CONTENTS. Accordingly modern Japanese is a mixture of native elements and words borrowed from the Chinese and possesses a rich vo- cabulary. mono-moral beggar (more commonly kojiki), from mono thing and morau receive : bui.morai-inonoglfc, mono-oki storeroom, from oku put; oki-mono an ornament kept in the toko-no-ma (alcove of a room). For many ideas there are both Japanese and Chi- nese terms. tate-kata style of building, from tate-ru build and kata mode \ or tate-yd, from yd manner. The senten- ces to be translated from English into Japanese were first writ- ten out in Japanese and then translated into English with a view to retranslation. 434 YUME NO GOKE 444 SHITA K1RI b UZUME 452 ADDRESS BY MARQUIS ITO 461 VOCABULARY- INDEX OF JAPANESE WORDS 466 VOCABULARY TO THE ENGLISH EXERCISES ... The abbreviations will hardly require explanation, except the letter (c), which indicates that a word is of Chinese origin. Marks of parenthesis ( ) indicate explanations or para- phrases ; square brackets [ ] indicate English words which are not to be translated into Japanese.

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That is, in Japanese, as in all agglutinative tongues, inflection in the ordinary sense is replaced by a loose attachment of par- ticles to the stem as suffixes, while the stem itself remains com- paratively unaffected.